This Week in Science

Rings of ocean upwelling | A carbonyl compound that tips the scales | Cancer immunotherapy expands T cell attack | Aligning a magnetic atomic gas | The file drawer is full. Should we worry? | Human adult stem cell expansion | Building connections by gene therapy | One protein smothers other deadly ones | Establishing memory of gene repression | Regulating DNA building blocks | Studying magnetism with cold atoms | Organic semiconductors go out for a spin | A pathway that controls our mood | A foreign-DNA–destroying machine

Editors' Choice

Biting into Big Data in the Big Apple | Simpler coating of silica surfaces | Clone wars: Let's pick out the superbugs | Signaling back and forth for cartilage | Gut bugs may boost flu shots' effects | Getting by with a little help from eel friends | Magnetism leads to superconductivity | Reservoir assembly drives super-eruptions

[Review] Metabolic control of cell death

Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of “metabolic checkpoints” that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss. Authors: Douglas R. Green, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer

[Report] Synthesis and detection of a seaborgium carbonyl complex

A special apparatus enables synthesis of a compound with carbon bonds to a short-lived element produced via nuclear reaction. [Also see Perspective by Loveland] Authors: J. Even, A. Yakushev, Ch. E. Düllmann, H. Haba, M. Asai, T. K. Sato, H. Brand, A. Di Nitto, R. Eichler, F. L. Fan, W. Hartmann, M. Huang, E. Jäger, D. Kaji, J. Kanaya, Y. Kaneya, J. Khuyagbaatar, B. Kindler, J. V. Kratz, J. Krier, Y. Kudou, N. Kurz, B. Lommel, S. Miyashita, K. Morimoto, K. Morita, M. Murakami, Y. Nagame, H. Nitsche, K. Ooe, Z. Qin, M. Schädel, J. Steiner, T. Sumita, M. Takeyama, K. Tanaka, A. Toyoshima, K. Tsukada, A. Türler, I. Usoltsev, Y. Wakabayashi, Y. Wang, N. Wiehl, S. Yamaki

[Report] Pyrimidoindole derivatives are agonists of human hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal

The self-renewal of human hematopoietic stem cells in vitrois enhanced by the pyrimidoindole derivative UM171. Authors: Iman Fares, Jalila Chagraoui, Yves Gareau, Stéphane Gingras, Réjean Ruel, Nadine Mayotte, Elizabeth Csaszar, David J. H. F. Knapp, Paul Miller, Mor Ngom, Suzan Imren, Denis-Claude Roy, Kori L. Watts, Hans-Peter Kiem, Robert Herrington, Norman N. Iscove, R. Keith Humphries, Connie J. Eaves, Sandra Cohen, Anne Marinier, Peter W. Zandstra, Guy Sauvageau

[New Products] New Products

A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.

[Business Office Feature] Human performance in space: Advancing astronautics research in China

As we pursue bolder initiatives in space, and as China moves towards launching a permanently manned space station, gaining a clearer understanding of the impact of long-term space travel becomes essential to maintain the well-being of astronauts. Serious consideration has been given to human travel beyond low Earth orbit—where the International Space Station resides—and beyond the moon, possibly to Mars or the moons of Jupiter. Examples of groundbreaking space research currently underway in China are collected in this booklet, providing the reader with a taste of what future space exploration might look like. As Chinese scientists learn about the effects on the body and mind, they are applying their knowledge to modify equipment, improve astronaut training, and fine-tune the selection process for astronauts. Other scientists and engineers around the world will benefit, and can apply the new information to space programs in their own countries. Human Performance in Space (PDF, 18 MB)Human Performance in Space (PDF, low resolution version, 6 MB)Read the e-bookletThis booklet brought to you by the Science/AAAS Custom Publishing Office.DOI: 10.1126/science.opms.sb0002

[Special Issue Editorial] Halving premature death

Death in old age is inevitable, but death before old age is not. Except where HIV or political disturbances predominated, mortality rates have been decreasing for decades, helped by sanitation, health care, and social changes. Even in low-income countries, at current death rates, three-quarters of newborn infants would survive to age 50, and half would survive to age 70. If disease control keeps progressing and economic development proceeds, then within the next few decades—except where disasters or new epidemics supervene—under-50 mortality should fall to less than half of today's 15% global risk, and under-70 mortality should be less than one in six. Authors: Richard Peto, Alan D. Lopez, Ole F. Norheim

[Special Issue Perspective] Putting women and girls at the center of development

The development field needs to be more serious about gender inequities and women’s empowerment. By ignoring gender inequities, many development projects fail to achieve their objective. And when development organizations do not focus on women’s empowerment, they neglect the fact that empowered women have the potential to transform their societies. I also review the Gates Foundation’s record on gender and propose some approaches to improve it. Author: Melinda French Gates

[Special Issue Perspective] The state of global health in 2014

The global health landscape looks more promising than ever, although progress has been uneven. Here, we describe the current global burden of disease throughout the life cycle, highlighting regional differences in the unfinished agenda of communicable diseases and reproductive, maternal, and child health and the additive burden of emerging noncommunicable diseases and injuries. Understanding this changing landscape is an essential starting point for effective allocation of both domestic and international resources for health. Authors: Jaime Sepúlveda, Christopher Murray

[Special Issue Perspective] Getting essential health products to their end users: Subsidize, but how much?

Although coverage rates and health outcomes are improving, many poor people around the world still do not benefit from essential health products. An estimated two-thirds of child deaths could be prevented with increased coverage of products such as vaccines, point-of-use water treatment, iron fortification, and insecticide-treated bednets. What limits the flow of products from the producer’s laboratory bench to the end users, and what can be done about it? Recent empirical research suggests a crucial role for heavy subsidies. Author: Pascaline Dupas

[Special Issue Perspective] Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering

Discussion on global health in both the academic and the public domain has focused largely on research, capacity building, and service delivery. Although these efforts along with financial commitments from public and private partners have contributed to a broader appreciation and understanding of global health challenges, the reflection of global health in academic training has largely been lacking. However, integrative models are beginning to appear. Authors: Patricia Garcia, Robert Armstrong, Muhammad H. Zaman

[Special Issue Perspective] Prioritizing integrated mHealth strategies for universal health coverage

As countries strive toward universal health coverage, mobile wireless technologies—mHealth tools—in support of enumeration, registration, unique identification, and maintenance of health records will facilitate improved health system performance. Electronic forms and registry systems will enable routine monitoring of the coverage of essential interventions for individuals within relevant target populations. A cascading model is presented for prioritizing and operationalizing the role of integrated mHealth strategies. Authors: Garrett Mehl, Alain Labrique