[Feature] Disputed islands

Biologists debate whether “genomic islands” are real and mark a first step in the formation of new species. Author: Elizabeth Pennisi

[Feature] The brain chip

Microprocessors modeled on networks of nerve cells promise blazing speed at incredibly low power—if they live up to hopes. Author: Robert F. Service

[Perspective] Beyond blob-ology

Advanced cryo–electron microscopy yields high-resolution structures of proteins Authors: Martin T. J. Smith, John L. Rubinstein

[Perspective] Lattice energy, nailed?

A quantum mechanical calculation of the lattice energy of benzene represents a milestone in accuracy [Also see Report by Yang et al.] Author: Sarah L. Price

[Perspective] A splicing magic bullet

Drugs that modulate RNA splicing are potential therapeutics for spinal muscular atrophy [Also see Report by Naryshkin et al.] Authors: Luisa Vigevani, Juan Valcárcel

[Policy Forum] Regulating gene drives

Regulatory gaps must be filled before gene drives could be used in the wild Authors: Kenneth A. Oye, Kevin Esvelt, Evan Appleton, Flaminia Catteruccia, George Church, Todd Kuiken, Shlomiya Bar-Yam Lightfoot, Julie McNamara, Andrea Smidler, James P. Collins

This Week in Science

Folding robots and metamaterials | Relocating a heavy-metal factory | Seeing magnetism on an atomic level | Drugs that provide the splice of life | You only see what you want to see | Modeling computer chips on real brains | Microbial life thrives in an oily bubble | Factors that aid ribosomal protein synthesis | Better blood thinner, without bleeding | How to plumb the root is the problem | Taking carbon out of the ammonial recipe | Working out how to pack benzene in silico | Scattering neutrons asymmetrically | How microbes compete for nitrate | Bad cholesterol: Bad for bacteria, too? | Bending the benefits of polyunsaturates | Going from a trickle to a flood? | Two signals for maximal T cell activation | Microbial life thrives in an oily bubble | Factors that aid ribosomal protein synthesis | Better blood thinner, without bleeding

Editors' Choice

Making more-directional magnetic materials | How proteins can evolve new functions | A fluorescent tool for tagging RNA | Hearing sounds can improve your vision | Stem cell factories inside teeth

[Research Article] Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis

A genetic network integrates hormonal inputs to establish a stable tissue pattern within a growing plant tissue. [Also see Perspective by Mellor and Bishopp] Authors: Bert De Rybel, Milad Adibi, Alice S. Breda, Jos R. Wendrich, Margot E. Smit, Ondřej Novák, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Saiko Yoshida, Gert Van Isterdael, Joakim Palovaara, Bart Nijsse, Mark V. Boekschoten, Guido Hooiveld, Tom Beeckman, Doris Wagner, Karin Ljung, Christian Fleck, Dolf Weijers

[Report] Real-space imaging of the atomic-scale magnetic structure of Fe1+yTe

Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals the magnetic ordering of a strongly correlated material. Authors: Mostafa Enayat, Zhixiang Sun, Udai Raj Singh, Ramakrishna Aluru, Stefan Schmaus, Alexander Yaresko, Yong Liu, Chengtian Lin, Vladimir Tsurkan, Alois Loidl, Joachim Deisenhofer, Peter Wahl

[Report] Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds

Climate warming is expected to reduce oxygen (O2) supply to the ocean and expand its oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We reconstructed variations in the extent of North Pacific anoxia since 1850 using a geochemical proxy for denitrification (δ15N) from multiple sediment cores. Increasing δ15N since ~1990 records an expansion of anoxia, consistent with observed O2 trends. However, this was preceded by a longer declining δ15N trend that implies that the anoxic zone was shrinking for most of the 20th century. Both periods can be explained by changes in winds over the tropical Pacific that drive upwelling, biological productivity, and O2 demand within the OMZ. If equatorial Pacific winds resume their predicted weakening trend, the ocean’s largest anoxic zone will contract despite a global O2 decline. Authors: Curtis Deutsch, William Berelson, Robert Thunell, Thomas Weber, Caitlin Tems, James McManus, John Crusius, Taka Ito, Timothy Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Jacob Mey, Alexander van Geen

[Report] A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface

A large-scale computer chip mimics many features of a real brain. Authors: Paul A. Merolla, John V. Arthur, Rodrigo Alvarez-Icaza, Andrew S. Cassidy, Jun Sawada, Filipp Akopyan, Bryan L. Jackson, Nabil Imam, Chen Guo, Yutaka Nakamura, Bernard Brezzo, Ivan Vo, Steven K. Esser, Rathinakumar Appuswamy, Brian Taba, Arnon Amir, Myron D. Flickner, William P. Risk, Rajit Manohar, Dharmendra S. Modha

[Report] Water droplets in oil are microhabitats for microbial life

Methanogenic microorganisms living in water droplets may contribute to the degradation of oil reservoirs. Authors: Rainer U. Meckenstock, Frederick von Netzer, Christine Stumpp, Tillmann Lueders, Anne M. Himmelberg, Norbert Hertkorn, Philipp Schmitt-Kopplin, Mourad Harir, Riad Hosein, Shirin Haque, Dirk Schulze-Makuch

[Report] SMN2 splicing modifiers improve motor function and longevity in mice with spinal muscular atrophy

Small molecules that alter splicing of a specific messenger RNA have beneficial effects in a model of a motor neuron disease. [Also see Perspective by Vigevani and Valcárcel] Authors: Nikolai A. Naryshkin, Marla Weetall, Amal Dakka, Jana Narasimhan, Xin Zhao, Zhihua Feng, Karen K. Y. Ling, Gary M. Karp, Hongyan Qi, Matthew G. Woll, Guangming Chen, Nanjing Zhang, Vijayalakshmi Gabbeta, Priya Vazirani, Anuradha Bhattacharyya, Bansri Furia, Nicole Risher, Josephine Sheedy, Ronald Kong, Jiyuan Ma, Anthony Turpoff, Chang-Sun Lee, Xiaoyan Zhang, Young-Choon Moon, Panayiota Trifillis, Ellen M. Welch, Joseph M. Colacino, John Babiak, Neil G. Almstead, Stuart W. Peltz, Loren A. Eng, Karen S. Chen, Jesse L. Mull, Maureen S. Lynes, Lee L. Rubin, Paulo Fontoura, Luca Santarelli, Daniel Haehnke, Kathleen D. McCarthy, Roland Schmucki, Martin Ebeling, Manaswini Sivaramakrishnan, Chien-Ping Ko, Sergey V. Paushkin, Hasane Ratni, Irene Gerlach, Anirvan Ghosh, Friedrich Metzger