This Week in Science

Cost-effective conservation on private land | Signature microbes follow you from house to house | Distance score settled for Seven Sisters | Strong yet creeping megathrust faults | Rabbits softly swept to domestication | Cutting out a kinase for T cell survival | Push me, pull you, that's the way to move | An enzyme offers a new path to pain control | A cosmic dust storm that came and went | Making a superfluid lithium mixture | Catching changing boron coordination | Arctic genetics comes in from the cold | Activating a receptor to excite a neuron | Brain stimulation to improve human memory | Chromatin mutations disrupt development | T and B cells' intricate molecular dance | Oxidizing hydrogen in place of nitrite | El Niño shifted between the center and the East

Editors' Choice

Need proteasomes? Make some! | Incentives work on economists, too! | Eliminating the effects of the pesky bulk | Making mantle melt analogs more accurate | Cleaving RNA dials down inflammation | Moving from one novelty to the next | Seals infected early Americans with TB | Interior design with nanoparticles

[Research Article] The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

Early Arctic humans differed from both present-day Inuit and Native Americans. [Also see Perspective by Park] Authors: Maanasa Raghavan, Michael DeGiorgio, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Pontus Skoglund, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Bjarne Grønnow, Martin Appelt, Hans Christian Gulløv, T. Max Friesen, William Fitzhugh, Helena Malmström, Simon Rasmussen, Jesper Olsen, Linea Melchior, Benjamin T. Fuller, Simon M. Fahrni, Thomas Stafford, Vaughan Grimes, M. A. Priscilla Renouf, Jerome Cybulski, Niels Lynnerup, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Kate Britton, Rick Knecht, Jette Arneborg, Mait Metspalu, Omar E. Cornejo, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Yong Wang, Morten Rasmussen, Vibha Raghavan, Thomas V. O. Hansen, Elza Khusnutdinova, Tracey Pierre, Kirill Dneprovsky, Claus Andreasen, Hans Lange, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Joan Coltrain, Victor A. Spitsyn, Anders Götherström, Ludovic Orlando, Toomas Kivisild, Richard Villems, Michael H. Crawford, Finn C. Nielsen, Jørgen Dissing, Jan Heinemeier, Morten Meldgaard, Carlos Bustamante, Dennis H. O’Rourke, Mattias Jakobsson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev

[Report] A VLBI resolution of the Pleiades distance controversy

A highly accurate and precise radio measurement overrules a contrary result from the Hipparcos satellite. [Also see Perspective by Girardi] Authors: Carl Melis, Mark J. Reid, Amy J. Mioduszewski, John R. Stauffer, Geoffrey C. Bower

[Report] A mixture of Bose and Fermi superfluids

An ultracold gas mixture of two lithium isotopes, one bosonic and the other fermionic, manifests superfluidity. Authors: I. Ferrier-Barbut, M. Delehaye, S. Laurent, A. T. Grier, M. Pierce, B. S. Rem, F. Chevy, C. Salomon

[Report] Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot

A small portion of Brazil’s agricultural subsidies would be enough to preserve private land in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Authors: Cristina Banks-Leite, Renata Pardini, Leandro R. Tambosi, William D. Pearse, Adriana A. Bueno, Roberta T. Bruscagin, Thais H. Condez, Marianna Dixo, Alexandre T. Igari, Alexandre C. Martensen, Jean Paul Metzger

[Report] Longitudinal analysis of microbial interaction between humans and the indoor environment

Microbes colonize not only our guts, but also our homes. Authors: Simon Lax, Daniel P. Smith, Jarrad Hampton-Marcell, Sarah M. Owens, Kim M. Handley, Nicole M. Scott, Sean M. Gibbons, Peter Larsen, Benjamin D. Shogan, Sophie Weiss, Jessica L. Metcalf, Luke K. Ursell, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Will Van Treuren, Nur A. Hasan, Molly K. Gibson, Rita Colwell, Gautam Dantas, Rob Knight, Jack A. Gilbert

[Report] Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation

Bacteria thought to rely on the oxidation of nitrite for energy can, in fact, do just fine by oxidizing hydrogen instead. Authors: Hanna Koch, Alexander Galushko, Mads Albertsen, Arno Schintlmeister, Christiane Gruber-Dorninger, Sebastian Lücker, Eric Pelletier, Denis Le Paslier, Eva Spieck, Andreas Richter, Per H. Nielsen, Michael Wagner, Holger Daims

[Report] Rabbit genome analysis reveals a polygenic basis for phenotypic change during domestication

The domestication of rabbits primarily shifted the frequencies of alleles represented, rather than creating new genes. [Also see Perspective by Lohmueller] Authors: Miguel Carneiro, Carl-Johan Rubin, Federica Di Palma, Frank W. Albert, Jessica Alföldi, Alvaro Martinez Barrio, Gerli Pielberg, Nima Rafati, Shumaila Sayyab, Jason Turner-Maier, Shady Younis, Sandra Afonso, Bronwen Aken, Joel M. Alves, Daniel Barrell, Gerard Bolet, Samuel Boucher, Hernán A. Burbano, Rita Campos, Jean L. Chang, Veronique Duranthon, Luca Fontanesi, Hervé Garreau, David Heiman, Jeremy Johnson, Rose G. Mage, Ze Peng, Guillaume Queney, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Magali Ruffier, Steve Searle, Rafael Villafuerte, Anqi Xiong, Sarah Young, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson, Jeffrey M. Good, Eric S. Lander, Nuno Ferrand, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Leif Andersson

[New Products] New Products

A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.

[Editorial] A swan in the making

Reproducibility is the ugly duckling of science. It provokes distress, denial, and passionate calls for action. With $1.5 trillion spent globally each year on R&D,* the idea that 80% of it is irreproducible† can cause downright dread. It threatens the foundations and credibility of the scientific enterprise. But look past the surface, and reproducibility may well be a swan in the making. Author: Timothy Gardner

[Feature] The cancer drug that almost wasn't

After years in drug development limbo, a compound that interrupts cell division has revitalized a troubled area of cancer research. Author: Ken Garber

[Perspective] Glacier retreat crosses a line

Mountain glacier loss since the 1970s has mostly been caused by human influences on climate change [Also see Report by Marzeion et al.] Author: Shawn Marshall

[Perspective] Riboswitch regulates RNA

Nutrient metabolism in bacteria is controlled by a circuit in which RNA is regulated by RNA [Also see Reports by DebRoy et al. and Mellin et al.] Authors: Jiandong Chen, Susan Gottesman